Sources of Information

This page starts with a brief outline of some of the unwritten sources of information on which I have drawn, through a network of friends, family and colleagues (none of which categories are mutually exclusive!). This network is constantly expanding, and only a few of the many people who have helped me with information about plants and languages are mentioned explicitly here -- quite a number appear on on other pages. I am very grateful to all of them.

The second and larger section is a set of bibliographies of published or otherwise generally accessible material on which I have drawn. Again, as more pages are written, the number of these references will expand. There are also references to other materials not listed here, especially those accessible through web links, on the relevant pages elsewhere on the site. For convenience, the bibliography is arranged in six sections, any of which can be reached directly through the links below.

Personal & Unpublished Sources

Published Sources

General references (Plants)
General references (Linguistic History & Plant Names)
General references (Other)
Specific references
Web references not noted elsewhere

Pukatea trunk & leaves
[Photo: The Bushman's Friend]

(Pterostylis banksii)

Photo: Michael Pratt,
NZ Native Orchid Group

i'ei'e with fruit'Ie'ie
(Freycinetia arborea)

Rice terracesRice Terraces, Banaue
(Northern Luzon)
It is thought that the prototypes of these terraces may have been for growing taro, a plant and name carried throughout Austronesia

Personal and Unpublished Sources of Information

We glean information from wherever it can be found, principally from talking to people, and consulting books, journals and magazines, but also from broadcast media, and the World Wide Web. Quite a lot of my personal knowledge of New Zealand native plants has come from people and direct personal experience. As a teenager, I had the great good fortune to spend most of my secondary school years in a fairly remote part of Te Taitokerau, where I was introduced to the New Zealand rain forest by a retired bushman, the late Harry Hartnell and his son Henry. I still remember my first expedition -- my guide cut a small branch off a tree, told me the name of the tree (I think it was a pukatea), and handed me the branch. He noticed the expression on my face (I have always had great difficulty in controlling my facial expression!) and said "Ah, would you rather plant them than press them?" I replied affirmatively, because I had been a keen gardener ever since my mother and grandmother recruited me to assist them in looking after our home garden when I was in primary school.

I made many more expeditions into the bush, sometimes with one of my mentors, and increasingly often alone. I designed a special set of saddlebags for my horse, and would come back laden with ferns, native ground orchids (which I became quite skilled at successfully transplanting) and Astelias, which I cultivated in a fernery at home under some large trees, irrigated with the effluent from a septic tank. I read everything I could find on native plants, and especially ferns, and discussed this with people who had spent their lives in the bush, and who, although they had spent many years felling giant trees and hauling out the trunks with bullock teams, were extremely knowledgeable about the ecosystem in which they had worked, and had a deep love of it. Of course, it is easy to forget exactly who first told one something about a tree or other plant, and there will not be many personal acknowledgements in this section. I am, however, most grateful to my many teachers from among the people whose love of our native flora has rubbed off on me over the years.

It is the printed and other publicly accessible sources which are listed here, firstly those which I often refer to as basic texts (and which contain a lot of overlapping information), and then those from which I have gleaned specific information about particular plants. There are, however, a few people whom I must thank individually for providing me with the data on which much of the linguistic commentary is based. These are my friends and colleagues Professors Andy Pawley, Bob Blust and Laurie Reid, Drs Ross Clark and Peter Matthews, along with my first mentor in linguistics, the late Professor Bruce Biggs. They must, needless to say, be absolved completely from any errors of fact or interpretation in what appears on these notes -- I have little trouble in seeking advice, but I do not always take it! Lastly, although she should really be up there in the "workers" section, I must thank Ross’s partner, Liz Pascual, for her offer, which I have gratefully accepted, to make a few Lapita-style pottery labels for some of the “Proto-Oceanic” plants.

The principal unpublished written source which I have made use of regularly is the POLLEX database, first compiled by the late Professor Biggs, and now maintained by his collaborator Dr Ross Clark. This can now be searched on-line through the University of Auckland's Department of Applied Linguistics and Language Studies web site - Another such source is the Proto-Austronesian comparative lexicon which has been developed over several decades by Professor Blust. I am very grateful to have had ready access to these invaluable sources of etymological information.

On a very practical level, I am also indebted to Professor Will McClatchey of the University of Hawaii for his help during my visits to Hawaii in 2007 and 2010, making it possible for me to make full use of the University library, introducing me to a number of very helpful people, and accompanying me on a couple of expeditions to the Lyon Arboretum in Manoa Valley, Honolulu (including offering to inform my family if I happened to fall to my doom at one point when I was trying to get a good angle to photograph a kiekie on the edge of a precipice). Other people who made it possible for me to become much better acquainted with the Hawaiian native flora, especially with the plants whose names had Maori counterparts, included Daniel Forman, who took me hiking in the Kahanahāiki Forest, Oahu, Kawika Winter who arranged for a member of his staff to identify key plants for me at the Limahuli National Tropical Botanical Garden on Kaua'i; Greg Trifonovitch and his friends who became very enthusiastic plant hunters on my visits to the Island of Hawai'i in 2007 and again in 2010, and also Kate Lynch who enabled me to photograph many of the Hawaiian ferns in her nursery on the North Shore of Oahu. In the Philippines, my affinal relatives in the Eslao, Duque and Pantua families have been generous in providing logistical support, and I have had very useful discussions with Prof Ernesto Constantino, an old friend and colleague, and Dr Edna Ampurado of the University of the Philippines.

Since then I have received further invaluable assistance from members of the NZ Plant Conservation Network, who have allowed me to use many of their photographs to illustrate the native trees and other plants for which I do not have suitable photographs of my own. I am grateful too to people like Brad Haami and Robert Vennell, who through their observations and questions from time to time have hastened the production of new pages and inspired improvements to those already on line. Others whose assistance should also be mentioned are Steven Percival, who accompanied me on several visits to the Samoan Botanical Gardens in Tiapapata, and also on a brief visit to the Island of Savai'i in a successful search for the Pau tree, Le Afioga Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese Taisi Efi, who made our visits to Samoa possible, and the botanists Julie Barcelona and Pieter Pelser for their hospitality when I attended a NZPCA conference in Christchurch, and for advice and information relating to Philippine flora.

Hoki atu ki runga ~ Go back to the top of the page.

Bibliography (Published Works)

General references (Plants)
General references (Linguistic History & Plant Names)
General references (Other)
Specific plant and botanical references
Web references not noted elsewhere
Sources of scriptural quotations


Isabella Aiona Abbott, Lā'au Hawai'i: Traditional Hawaiian Uses of Plants (Honolulu, Bishop Museum Press, 1992)

H.H. Allan, Flora of New Zealand, Volume 1. (Wellington: Government Printer, 1961)

Consuelo V. Asis et al., Plants of the Philippines, Quezon City, University of the Philippines Press, 1971.

Jessica Beever, K.W. Allison and John Child, The Mosses of New Zealand Second Edition (Dunedin: University of Otago Press, 1992).

Elsdon Best, Forest Lore of the Māori (Wellington: Government Printer, 1977).

S.G. Brooker, R.C. Cambie & R.C. Cooper, New Zealand Medicinal Plants. Auckland: Heinemann, 1987.

Patrick J. Brownsey & John C. Smith-Dodsworth, New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Auckland: David Bateman, 2000).

Bruce A Bohm, Hawai'i's Native Plants (Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004).

Alan Clarke, The Great Sacred Forest of Tane: Te Wao Tapu Nui a Tane: A Natural Pre-History of Aotearoa New Zealand (Auckland: Reed, 2007).

Bruce Clarkson, Merilyn Merrett & Theresa Downs, Botany of the Waikato (Hamilton: Waikato Botanical Society, 2002).

Erling Christophersen, Flowering Plants of Samoa. (Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 1935 / New York: Kraus Reprints, 1971)

H.E. Connor, The Poisonous Plants in New Zealand. (Wellington: Government Printer, 1977)

H. E. Connor & F. Edgar, Name changes in the indigenous New Zealand Flora, 1960-1986 and Nomina Nova IV, 1983-1986, in New Zealand Journal of Botany, Vol 25, 1987, pp. 115-70.

Andrew Crowe, A Field Guide to Native Edible Plants of New Zealand, North Shore: Penguin, 2004

John Dawson, Forest Vines to Snow Tussocks: The Story of New Zealand Plants (Wellington, Victoria University Press, 1988).

John Dawson & Rob Lucas, Nature Guide to the New Zealand Forest (Auckland: Random House, 2000).

John Dawson & Rob Lucas, New Zealand's Native Trees (Nelson: Craig Potton Publishing, 2011).

H.B. Dobbie & Marguerite Crookes, New Zealand Ferns (Christchurch: Whitcombe & Tombs, [1952]).

Tony Foster, Plant Heritage New Zealand: Te Whakapapa o nga Rakau, North Shore: Penguin, 2008.

Louise Furey, Maori gardening: An archaeological perspective. Wellington: Department of Conservation, 2006.

D.J. Galloway, Flora of New Zealand Lichens, Revised Second Edition (Manaaki Whenua Press, 2007)

George Gibbs, Ghosts of Gondwana (Nelson: Craig Potton, 2006).

Angela Kay Kepler, Hawaiian Heritage Plants (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1998).

Beatrice H. Krauss, Plants in Hawaiian Medicine (Honolulu: The Bess Press, 2001).

R.M. Laing & E.W. Blackwell, Plants of New Zealand (Christchurch: Whitcombe & Tombs).

Helen Leach, 1,000 years of gardening in New Zealand. (Wellington: Reed)

Noa Kekuewa Lincoln, Amy Greenwell Garden Ethnobotanical Guide to Native Hawaiian Plants, Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 2009

Christina Macdonald, Medicines of the Maori from their Trees, Shrubs and other Plants. (Auckland, Collins, 1974).

William Martin & John Child, New Zealand Lichens, Wellington, AH & AW Reed, 1972

L.J. Metcalf, The Cultivation of New Zealand Trees and Shrubs (Wellington: Reed, 1972).

L.B. Moore & E. Edgar, Flora of New Zealand, Volume 2. (Wellington: Government Printer, 1970)

Muriel E. Fisher, E. Satchell & Janet M. Watkins, Gardening with New Zealand Plants, Shrubs & Trees (Auckland: Collins, 1970).

L.J. Metcalf, The Cultivation of New Zealand Trees and Shrubs (Wellington: Reed, 1972).

B.E.V. Parham & A.J. Healy, Common Weeds in New Zealand (Wellington, Government Printer, 1976).

Daniel D. Palmer, Hawai'i's Ferns and Fern Allies (Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 2002).

Murdoch Riley, Māori Healing and Herbal (Paraparaumu: Viking Seven Seas, 1994).

J. T. Salmon, The Native Trees of New Zealand (Auckland: Reed, 1996).

S.H. Sohmer & R. Gustafson, Plants and Flowers of Hawai'i (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2004).

US Department of Agriculture, Natural Conservation Resources Service's Plants Database (

Kathy Valier, Ferns of Hawaii (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1995).

Warren L. Wagner, Derryl Herbst & S.H. Sohmer, Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii (Revised Edition, 2 volumes) (Honolulu: Bishop Museum, 1999).

W Arthur Whistler, Ethnobotany of the Cook Islands: The Plants, their Maori names, and their Uses (Allertonia, Vol. 5 No 4), Lawai, Kaua'i: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 1990

W. Arthur Whistler, The Ethnobotany of Tonga: The Plants, Their Tongan Names and Their Uses, Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1991.

W Arthur Whistler, Tongan Herbal Medicine, Honolulu: Isle Botanica, 1992

W Arthur Whistler, Plants in Samoan Culture, Honolulu: Isle Botanica, 2000

W Arthur Whistler, The Samoan Rainforest: A Guide to the Vegetation of the Samoan Archipelago, Honolulu: Isle Botanica, 2002

W Arthur Whistler, Rainforest Trees of Samoa, Honolulu: Isle Botanica, 2004

W. Arthur Whistler, Plants of the Canoe People: An Ethnobotanical Voyage through Polynesia, Lawai, Kauai'i: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 2009.

Michael Zohary, Plants of the Bible (London: Cambridge University Press, 1982).

Hoki atu ki runga ~ Go back to the top of the page.



Lorrin Andrews, A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language (New Edition) (Honolulu: Island Heritage, 2003).

James Beever, A Dictionary of Maori Plant Names (Auckland: Auckland Botanical Society, 1991).

Bruce Biggs, Complete English-Maori Dictionary (Auckland: Oxford University Press, 1981).

Richard A. Benton, Pangasinan Dictionary (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1971).

Richard A. Benton (General editor), Te Papakupu o te Tai Tokerau / Tai Tokerau Dictionary [2007]. (Web based publication, also deposited in the NZ National Library.)

Bruce Biggs & Ross Clark, The Pollex Database (Held at the University of Auckland; also accessible on line).

Jasper Buse & Raututi Taringa. Cook Islands Māori Dictionary (Rarotonga: Ministry of Education, Government of the Cook Islands, 1995).

F. W. Christian,"Vocabulary of the Mangaian Language", Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 11, 1924, pp. 1-31.

C.M. Churchward, Tongan Dictionary. (London: Oxford University Press, 1959).

H.J. Davies, A Tahitian and English Dictionary. (Tahiti: London Missionary Society, 1851).

Rene I. Dordillon, Dictionnaire de la Langue des Iles Marquises (Paris: Institut d’Ethnologie, 1931).

Samuel H. Elbert, Dictionary of the language of Rennell and Bellona (Copenhagen: National Museum of Denmark,1975).

Jordi Fuentes, Diccionario y Gramatica de la Lengua de las Isla Pascua. (Sanitago: Editorial Andres Bello, 1960).

[A Morris Jones (Compiler)], "Maori Names of Plants", in H.H. Allan (Ed.), Flora of New Zealand, Volume 1, pp. 998-1007.

Domingo A. Madulid, A Dictionary of Philippine Plant Names (Two Volumes, Manila: Bookmark, 2001).

Les Missionnaires Catholiques [des Isles Gambier], Grammaire et Dictionnaire Mangaréviens. (Braine-Le-Comte: Zech et Fils, 1908).

J.M. McEwen, Niue Dictionary (Wellington: Department of Māori and Island Affairs, 1970).

G.B. Milner, Samoan Dictionary (London: Oxford University Press, 1966).

J.R. Porter, Hawaiian Names for Vascular Plants (Honolulu, College of Tropical Agriculture, University of Hawaii, 1972).

Rev. George Pratt, A Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language, with English and Samoan Vocabulary (3rd Edition), London: London Missionary Society, 1893 (Web Version in NZ Electronic Text Centre collection:

Mary Kawena Pukui, & Samuel H. Elbert, Hawaiian Dictionary (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1971).

Karl H. Rensch, Dictionnaire français-wallisien (Mawson, ACT: Archipelago Press, 2002).

Karl H. Rensch & Arthur W. Whistler, Dictionary of Polynesian Plant Names (Canberra, Archipelago Press, 2009).

Malcolm Ross, Andrew Pawley & Meredith Osmond, The Lexicon of Proto Oceanic 3: Plants (Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University, 2008).

Carl R. G. Rubino, Ilocano Dictionary and Grammar (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2000).

Stephen Savage, A Dictionary of the Māori Language of Rarotonga (Wellington: Department of Island Territories, 1962).

Ropati Simona, Tokelau Dictionary (Apia: Office of Tokelau Affairs, 1986).

J. Frank Stimson & D.S. Marshall, A Dictionary of Some Tuamotuan Dialects of the Polynesian Language (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1964).

Sven Wahlroos, English-Tahitian Tahitian-English Dictionary, ([Papeete: Éva Wahlroos & Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press,] 2002).

H.W. Williams, A Dictionary of the Maori Language (Seventh Edition), (Wellington: Government Printer, 1971).

Hoki atu ki runga ~ Go back to the top of the page.



NOTE - on some pages this abbreviation is used to refer to one of the works in this section:
* R&W - K.H. Rensch & A.W. Whistler Dictionary of Polynesian Plant Names (Page No. indicated)

Alexander Adellar and Andrew Pawley (eds.), Austronesian Historical Linguistics and Culture History (Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, ANU, 2009).

Richard Benton, "Mauri, tupu and the secret life of plant names", in John Bowden et al., eds, 2010, pp. 515-523.

Bruce Biggs, "A Linguist Revisits the New Zealand Bush", in Andrew Pawley (ed.) Man and a Half: Essays in Pacific Anthropology and Ethnobiology in Honour of Ralph Bulmer (Auckland: The Polynesian Society, 1991).

Roger Blench, "Remapping the Austronesian expansion", in Discovering History through Language, ed. Bethwyn Evans (Canberra, Pacific Linguistics, ANU, 2009).

Robert Blust, The Austronesian Languages (Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, 2009).

John Bowden, Nikolaus P. Himmelmann & Malcolm Ross, eds, A Journey through Austronesian and Papuan Linguistic and Cultural Space (Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, ANU, 2010).

Paul Geraghty, "Words of Eastern Polynesia: is there lexical evidence for the origin of the East Polynesians?" in Alexander Adellar and Andrew Pawley (eds.) 2009, pp. 445-460.

David Glenny & Murray Dawson, "The second Linnean revolution: DNA sequencing and its impact on taxonomy [with additional name changes for the NZ flora]", in New Zealand Garden Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2008, pp. 11-13.

Simon J. Greenhill & R. D. Gray, "Testing Population Dispersal Hypotheses: Pacific Settlement, Phylogenetic Trees, and Austronesian Languages", in The Evolution of Cultural Diversity: Phylogenetic Approaches. Editors: R Mace, C Holden, & S Shennan. (London: UCL Press, 2005, pp. 31-52).

K. R. Howe (ed.), Vaka Moana: Voyages of the Ancestors (Auckland: David Bateman, 2006).

P. V. Kirch, On the Road of the Winds (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000)

Patrick Vinton Kirch & Roger C. Green, Hawaii, Ancestral Polynesia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

Jeff Marck, "Proto Polynesian *kainanga" in John Bowden et al., 2010, pp. 607-620.

Andrew Pawley, "The role of the Solomon Islands in the first settlement of Remote Oceania: bringing linguistic evidence to an archaeological debate," in Alexander Adellar and Andrew Pawley (eds.) 2009, pp. 515-540.

Malcolm Ross, Andrew Pawley & Meredith Osmond, The Lexicon of Proto Oceanic 3: Plants (Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University, 2008).


Hoki atu ki runga ~ Go back to the top of the page.



NOTE - on many pages these abbreviations are used to refer to two sets of works in this section:
* NM - Sir Apirana Ngata's Ngā Mōteatea (Song and Volume No. indicated)
* M&G - H.M. Mead & N. Grove, Ngā Pēpeha a ngā Tïpuna (Proverb No. indicated)

Peter Bellwood, First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies, Malden, MA: Blackwood, 2005.

Elsdon Best, Maori Agriculture, Wellington, Government Printer, 1976.

Elsdon Best, "Maori Medical Lore", The Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol 13, No 52, 1904, pp. 213-37, & Vol 14, No 53, 1905, pp. 1-23.

John Early, Insects and Spiders, Auckland, New Holland, 2009.

Jennifer G. Kahn, Timothy M. Rieth, Patrick V. Kirch, J. Stephen Athens, Gail Murakami, "Re-dating of the Kuli'ou'ou Rockshelter, O'ahu, Hawai'i: Location of the first radiocarbon date from the Pacific Islands". Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 123, No. 1, March 2014, 67-90.

Leslie G. Kelly, Tainui, Wellington, The Polynesian Society, 1949.

David Malo, Hawaiian Antiquities: Mo'olelo Hawai'i, Honolulu, Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 1951 (First published 1903).

Hirini Moko Mead & Neil Grove , Ngā Pēpeha a ngā Tūpuna / The Sayings of the Ancestors. Wellington: Victoria University Press, 2003.

A. T. Ngata & Pei Te Hurinui Jones, Nga Mōteatea / The Songs, Part 1. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2004.
A. T. Ngata & Pei Te Hurinui Jones, Nga Mōteatea / The Songs, Part 2. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2005.
A. T. Ngata & Pei Te Hurinui Jones, Nga Mōteatea / The Songs, Part 3. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2006.
A. T. Ngata & Hirini Moko Mead, Nga Mōteatea / The Songs, Part 4. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2007.

Margaret Orbell, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Māori Myth and Legend. (Christchurch: Canterbury University Press, 1995)

Te Rangi Hiroa (Sir Peter Buck), The Coming of the Māori, Wellington, Whitcombe & Tombs, 1958.

Timothy M. Rieth, Terry L. Hunt, Carl Lipo, Janet M. Wilmshurst, "The 13th century Polynesian colonization of Hawai'i Island". Journal of Archaeological Science, Vol. 38, Issue 10, 2011, 2740-2749.

Edward Shortland, Traditions and Superstitions of the New Zealanders, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2011 (Originally published 1854).

S. Percy Smith, History and Traditions of the Taranaki Coast, New Plymouth, The Polynesian Society, 1910.

H.T. Whatahoro, trans. S Percy Smith, The Lore of the Whare Wananga, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1913, reprinted 2011.

Hoki atu ki runga ~ Go back to the top of the page.



This section will be expanded as pages about the various plants with inherited names are added to this collection.

[Anonymous], “A cut above”. National Business Review, 20 August 2004, p. 33. [Sustainable commercial cultivation of NZ native trees such as miro.]

Stephen Acabado, "Landscapes and the archaeology of the Ifugao agricultural terraces: Establishing antiquity and social organization", Hukay: Journal for Archaeological Research in Asia and the Pacific, 15, 2010, pp. 31-61.

Stephen Acabado, "The Ifugao agricultural landscapes: Agro-cultural complexes and the intensification debate", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 43, No 3, 2012, pp. 500-522.

Chris Ballard, Paula Brown, R. Michael Bourke & Tracy Harwood (eds.), The Sweet Potato in Oceania: a reappraisal (Ethnology Monographs 19; Oceania Monograph 56), Sydney: The University of Sydney, 2005.

Luc Baudouin & Patricia Lebrun, Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) DNA studies support the hypothesis of an ancient Austronesian migration from Southeast Asia to America. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, Vol 56, No. 2, March 2009 (online journal).

Caroline Blanvillain & Mike Thorsen, The biology of the critically endangered Marquesan Imperial-Pigeon (Ducula galatea), Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Archipelago (French Polynesia). Emu 2003, 103, pp.381-386.

Walter L. Bradley, Jason Poel, and Howard Huang, 2006, “Cocos Nucifera: An Abundant Renewable Source of Energy in the Developing World”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Renewable Energy for Developing Countries-2006 , Washington, D.C., April 6-7, 2006 (Washington, D.C.: University of District of Columbia).

Colin Burrows: Swelling seeds, green capsules, fleshy placentae and near-vivipary: fruit and seeds of Beilschmiedia tarairi, Dysoxylum spectabile, Geniostoma rupestre and Syzygium maire, Canturbury Botanical Society Journal, Vol 32, 1998, pp. 50-53

D. Champion, Vivien Kloosterman: New Zealand Constructed Wetland Planting Guidelines, New Zealand Water and Wastes Association, and NIWA,  2006.

Chi-Shan Chang et al., "A holistic picture of Austronesian Migrations revealed by phylogeography of Pacific paper mulberry", PNAS, vol. 112, no. 44, 2015, pp. 13537–13542

John J. Cho, Roy A. Yamakawa, & James Hollyer, Hawaiian Kalo, Past and Future, Sustainable Agriculture 1, February 2007, pp. 1-8.

Andrew C. Clarke, Michael K. Burtenshaw, Patricia A. McLenachan, David L. Erickson & David Penny, "Reconstructing the origins and dispersal of the Polynesian Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria)", in Molecular Biology and Evolution, Vol 23, No 5, 2006, pp. 893-900.

M.N. Clout & J.A.V. Tilley, “Germination of Miro (Prumnopitys ferruginea) seeds after consumption by New Zealand pigeons (Hemiphaga nocaeseelandiae)”, in NZ Journal of Botany, Vol. 30, 1992, pp. 25-28.

College of Tropical Agriculture, University of Hawaii, CTAHR and Taro: Taro Research by the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (Background Paper), CTAHR, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2009

James Cowan, "The Breadfruit Tree in Maori Tradition", Journal of the Polynesian Society 19.2, 1910, pp. 94-96.

Peter de Lange, "A Revision of the New Zealand Kunzea ericoides (Myrtaceae) complex", PhytoKeys 40, pp. 1-185 (2014).

D.R. Drake, W. A. Whistler, T.J. Motley & C.T. Imada, "Rainforest vegetation of 'Eua Island, Kingdom of Tonga", NZ Journal of Botany, Vol 34, 1996, p. 76

Serge Dunis, "Of kumara and canoes: Maori and Hawaiian mythologies and American contacts", in The Sweet Potato in Oceania, ed. Chris Ballard et al., 2005, pp. 89-97.

Michelle S. Eusebio, Jasminda R. Ceron, Stephen B. Acabado & John Krigbaum, "Rice pots or not? Exploring ancient Ifugao foodways through organic residue analysis and paleoethnobotany", National Museum Journal of Cultural Heritage, Vol. 1 No 1, 2015, pp. 11- 20.

Rhys Gardner, "Notes towards an excursion Flora: Manuka Leptospermum scoparium Myrtaceae", Auckland Botanical Society Journal, 57: 147-149 (2002).

Goldie, W.H., "Maori medical lore", Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, Vol. 37, 1904, pp. 1-120.

R.C. Green, "Sweet potato transfers in Polynesian prehistory", in The Sweet Potato in Oceania: a Reappraisal, C. Ballard et al., eds, Oceania Monograph No. 56, University of Sydney, 2005, pp. 43-62.

Ilaria Maria Grimaldi et al., "Literary evidence for taro in the ancient Mediterranean: A chronology of names and uses in a multilingual world". PLOS One,, June 5, 2018.

P.B. Heenan; P.J. de Lange; A.D. Wilton. "Sophora (Fabaceae) in New Zealand: taxonomy, distribution, and biogeography". New Zealand Journal of Botany 39, 2001, pp. 17-53

M. M. Kapa, & B.D. Clarkson, "Biological flora of New Zealand 11. Eleocharis spacelata, kuta, paopao, bamboo spike sedge”. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 47(1), 2009, pp. 43-52.

Mieke Kapa, “Ethnobotany of kuta (Eleocharis sphaculata) in Bay of Plenty and Northland, New Zealand”, Journal of the Polynesian Society, 119 (2), 2010, pp.131-148

Shirley Koshiba, Meked Besebes, Kiblas Soaladaob, Adelle Lukes Isechal, Steven Victor, and Yimnang Golbuu, "Palau’s taro fields and mangroves protect the coral reefs
by trapping eroded fine sediment", Wetlands Ecology Management 21 (2013), pp. 157–164

Helen Leach & Chris Stowe, Oceanic arbiculture at the margins -- the case of the Karaka (Corynocarpus laevigatus) in Aotearoa. In the Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 114, No. 1, March 2005, pp.7-28.

Ugolino Martelli, Samoan Pandanaceae, Bernice P. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers Vol. X, No 13, Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 1934.

William Martin, "New Zealand Lichens and Their Habitats", Tuatara v. 17, no. 1, May 1969, pp. 20-26.

Elizabeth A Matisoo Smith, "Tracking Austronesian expansion into the Pacific via the paper mulberry plant", PNAS, vol. 112, no. 44, 2015, pp.13432–13433

Peter Matthews, "Nga Taro o Aotearoa", Journal of the Polynesian Society, v. 94, no 3, 1985, pp. 253-272.

Peter J. Matthews, On the Trail of Taro: An Exploration of Natural and Cultural History, Osaka, Japan: National Museum of Ethnology, 2014.

Pablo Muñoz-Rodríguez; Tom Carruthers; John R.I.Wood; Bethany R.M. Williams; Kevin Weitemier; Brent Kronmiller; David Ellis; Noelle L. Anglin; Lucas Longway; Stephen A.Harris; Mark D. Rausher; Steven Kelly; Aaron Liston; & Robert W. Scotland, "Reconciling conflicting phylogenies in the origin of sweet potato and dispersal to Polynesia". Current Biology. 28 (8), 2018, pp. 1246–1256

A. E. Orchard, "A review of Australian Adenostemma J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Adteraceae: Eupatoriae), Telopea 13 (1-2), 2011, pp. 341-348.

Melinda Ostraff, Kiu Anitoni, Angela Nicholson & Gary M. Booth, Traditional Tongan cures for morning sickness and their mutagenic/toxicilogical evaluations, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 71, Issues 1-2, July 2000, pp. 201-9.

Aroon Parshotam, Issues facing larger-scale taro growing in New Zealand, Agronomy New Zealand 48, 2018, pp.177-189

Aroon Parshotam, Aloha Taro, Tree Cropper 96 (December) 2018, pp. 33-4

Cheri Johanna von Schravendijk, Kaitiakitanga mō te kiekie - Sustainable harvest of Freycinetia banksii, MSc Thesis, University of Canterbury, 2007 (available on line:

A.J. Scott, "The Austral-Pacific Species of Decaspermum (Myrtaceae)", Kew Bulletin, Vol. 34, No. 1 (1979), pp. 59-67.

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Brian Sorrell and Chris Tanner, “Kuta: a special sort of spike-rush”, Water & Atmosphere 7 (1), 1999, pp. 8-10.

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WEB REFERENCES NOT INCLUDED ON SPECIFIC PAGES (Lichens & mosses) (Critique of article by Alice A. Storey et al., Radiocarbon & DNA evidence for a pre-Columbian introduction of Polynesian chickens to Chile, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol 104, No. 25, 2007, pp. 10335=10339).


O Le Tusi Paia (The Holy Bible in Samoan), [Apia], The Bible Society in the South Pacific, 1969. (TP)

The Poverty and Justice Bible (New Revised Standard Version), Wellington, The Bible Society in New Zealand, Inc., 2015. (NRSV)

Te Paipera Tapu, London, The British and Foreign Bible Society, 1958. (PT)

Good News Bible, Nashville, Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1986. (GNB)

The Jerusalem Bible, London, Darton, Longman and Todd, 1966. (JB)

Ko e Tohi Tapu, London, British & Foreign Bible Society, 1966. [Niuean]

Te Bibilia Tapu Ra, London, British & Foreign Bible Society, 1938. [Rarotongan]

Te Bibilia Mo'a Ra, London, E. R. Clay, Sons, E.O. Taylor, 1878. [Tahitian]

The Bible in Hawaiian, retrieved from


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[This page has been prepared by Richard Benton. Last updated 17 April 2018.]

Te Mära Reo, c/o Benton Family Trust, "Tumanako", RD 1, Taupiri, Waikato 3791, Aotearoa / New Zealand. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 New Zealand License